The students, Brandon Putnam, Kyle Griswould and John Drew, have been dismissed from the team and the university also said they will not be allowed to return to campus pending resolution of the charges.
At about 3 a.m. Sunday, officials say Duke University Police heard gunfire coming from a vehicle near the Jarvis residence hall on Duke's East Campus.
The vehicle was located in the Blackwell residence hall parking lot, also on East Campus, and traced to one of the students who has been charged, officials said.
Officials say that a subsequent investigation determined the firearm was also discharged on Campus Drive.
No one was injured and the weapon has been recovered by Duke University Police.
Further details about the incident have not been released.