Evaristo Deras-Martinez, 24, is charged with assault with a deadly weapon inflicting serious injury and discharging a firearm within the city limits.
He was placed in the Durham County Jail without bond.
The shooting happened in the parking lot of the One Hop convenience store on Guess Road.
The victim was sitting in the back seat of a vehicle parked in the parking lot, when she was shot in the neck.
The victim's husband told officers he was getting out of his car when he heard several gunshots. He said he then saw both of his back passenger windows had been shattered and his wife was injured.
A second woman in the vehicle was not injured.