It happened around 7:30 a.m. at the Wrenn Road railroad crossing.
Durham Sheriff's Office Spokesman Paul Sherwin said the conductor of the train called in the accident after it happened.
The victim died at the scene, but authorities authorities have not released her identity.
"She is local," Sherwin said. "There was a vehicle nearby. We suspect that it's hers, and we're still working to confirm that."
"What we know right now is that a woman has been killed," Sherwin added. "We're withholding disclosure of her name until we're able to notify family members."
The Amtrak #73 Piedmont train was delayed as deputies looked for clues to the victim's death.
Last week, another person was struck and killed by a train near Plum Street -- about 3 miles west of Tuesday morning's accident.