It happened just after 9 p.m. Sunday at the Wells Fargo Bank in the 4500 block of Raeford Road.
Police said the woman was in the passenger seat of her friend's car and was attempting to make a deposit when an unknown man approached her.
The victim told officers the suspect made no demands before shooting her in the upper torso area.
She was taken to Cape Fear Valley Medical Center where she is currently in critical, but stable condition.
Family members identified the victim as 24-year-old Anna Williams. They said the bullet went through her back and damaged her liver and stomach.
"She was just an innocent person, gone to the bank, and he shot her for no reason," said Williams' father Willam.
Further details surrounding the incident have not been released.
Police are still searching for the suspect, and have released bank photos taken during the incident in an effort to identify the man.
Anyone with information concerning the shooting is asked to contact Detectives with the Fayetteville Police Department at (910) 433-1856 or Crimestoppers at (910) 483-TIPS (8477).
Crimestoppers information can also be submitted by visiting http://www.fay-nccrimestoppers.org/send_a_tip.aspx and completing the anonymous online tip sheet or by text-a-tip on your mobile device by sending a message to 274637 (in the text box type "4Tip" followed by your message).