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Authorities identified the woman as 27-year-old Yenni Francisco Cruz.
The incident happened just before 2:30 Wednesday morning on Capital Boulevard near Wade Avenue.
Emergency crews were called to the scene to try to revive the woman.
The inbound lanes of Capitol Blvd remain closed as @raleighpolice continue their investigation after finding a woman lying in the road overnight. The latest, live on @ABC11_WTVD pic.twitter.com/srz2ifQRUj— Anthony Wilson (@AnthonyABC11) August 15, 2018
She was taken to WakeMed in serious condition.
Officials are unsure what happened; however, they initially suspected Cruz was a victim of an assault. Investigators later said it "appears that no assault occurred."
RDP is investigating whether the woman may have been thrown from a car or fell from a car.
Authorities found a gold SUV about 100 yards away from where the woman was lying; they are now trying to find the driver.
That’s the man who jumped and ran from an SUV found by @raleighpolice about 100 yards away from the place where a seriously injured assault victim was spotted on Capitol Blvd overnight. EMS took the woman to Wake Med. #abc11 pic.twitter.com/XJbwSPOsXC— Anthony Wilson (@AnthonyABC11) August 15, 2018
Police said the driver may have been seen fleeing from the vehicle.
Southbound Capital Boulevard was closed during the investigation; it reopened just before 8 a.m.
Watch: Chopper11 HD live over the scene
Anyone with information that might assist the investigation of the incident is asked to call Raleigh CrimeStoppers at (919) 834-HELP or visit raleighcrimestoppers.org for text and email reporting options. CrimeStoppers pays cash rewards for anonymous tips that help solve cases.