Officials at the Nash County Sheriff's Office said Jasmine Barnes was cut on her throat with a scalpel, while in the hallway at Southern Nash High School.
It happened Tuesday morning while students were switching classes.
Barnes was taken to Wilson Memorial Hospital and then transferred to Vidant Medical Center in Greenville for further treatment. She was last listed in good condition.
Barnes' classmate, identified only as a 15-year-old girl, was taken into custody by the school's resource officer and will be charged with assault with a deadly weapon with intent to kill.
Details surrounding the altercation have not been released.