The agency says the quake shook the planet Mars on May 4, the 1,222nd Martian day, or sol, of the mission.
The 5.0 magnitude quake was apparently the largest temblor ever detected on another planet.
A magnitude 5.0 quake is a medium-size quake compared to those felt on Earth, according to NASA.
NASA's InSight Mars lander is using a highly sensitive seismometer to study quake activity on the red planet.
"Since we set our seismometer down in December 2018, we've been waiting for 'the big one,'" said Bruce Banerdt, InSight's principal investigator at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California, which leads the mission. "This quake is sure to provide a view into the planet like no other. Scientists will be analyzing this data to learn new things about Mars for years to come."
More than 1,300 quakes have been detected on Mars since November 2018.