It happened at a home on Nuthatch Road around 1:42 p.m.
Police said the preliminary investigation indicates the child gained access to the pool. When family members located the toddler, she was unconscious.
They attempted CPR until EMS arrived.
The child was taken to Cape Fear Valley Medical Center where she is listed in critical condition.
The pool is reportedly 3 to 5 feet deep. At least one parent was home when the incident happened, officials told ABC11.
The Fayetteville Fire Department, Cumberland County EMS, and the Fayetteville Police Department responded to the scene.
The identity of the toddler is not available and no charges have been filed.