The ban, which starts on Wednesday and lasts for six months, affects online and retail sales.
Gov. Gretchen Whitmer says it is a necessary step to prevent the younger population from taking up the habit.
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Whitmer lambasted companies selling vaping products by "using candy flavors to hook children on nicotine and misleading claims to promote the belief that these products are safe."
"That ends today," she said in a statement.
During the ban, state officials say they are going to work on permanent regulations that target vaping and e-cigarette use.
The American Vaping Association says the "shameless attempt at backdoor prohibition" could send thousands of ex-smokers back to deadly cigarettes. It says it will support lawsuits to challenge the ban.
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Vaping among high school students increased by 78% from 2017 to 2018, and rose by 48% among middle school students during that same time period, according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
The FDA believes the sharp increase stems from the use of USB-flash-drive-like e-cigarettes, including the JUUL product, which have become majorly popular among young people.
More than 3.6 million kids reported using e-cigarettes in 2018, according to the FDA.
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The Associated Press and ABC News contributed to this report.