In the Rule 5 draft, teams pay $50,000 to pick a player. That player must either remain on the big league roster throughout 2016 or be offered back to the original club for $25,000.
The Cincinnati Reds followed by taking New York Yankees outfield prospect Jake Cave with the second overall choice.
The Yankees also lost left-handed pitcher Evan Rutckyj in the draft. He went to Atlanta with the No. 3 pick.
Goeddel, 23, hit .279 with 12 home runs and 28 stolen bases for Tampa Bay's Double-A Montgomery farm club this season. He's the younger brother of New York Mets reliever Erik Goeddel.
Last year the Phillies chose Texas outfielder Odubel Herrera in the Rule 5 draft. He hit .297 with a .762 OPS and 16 stolen bases as a rookie.
A total of 16 players were selected in the major league phase of this year's Rule 5 draft.
Phillies take Tyler Goeddel in Rule 5 draft
ESPN senior baseball writer Jerry Crasnick breaks down the top picks of the Rule 5 draft.