Terry Demetrius Lee, 21, was found unconscious in his cell by staff around 2:20 p.m. Thursday.
Authorities said staffers performed CPR until emergency crews arrived. Paramedics attempted to revive Lee, but were unable to. He was pronounced dead at the scene.
"My thoughts are with the Lee family, and I'm very sorry for their loss," Durham County Sheriff Mike Andrews said. "My office is conducting an investigation surrounding Mr. Lee's death and we have notified the SBI, which is standard procedure."
Lee's body has been sent to the state medical examiner's office for examination.
Lee was booked into the jail early Wednesday morning on several felony charges. He was being held in custody under a $1,000,500 bond.